Oct. 6 2009 – U.S. oil giant ExxonMobil has bought Kosmos Energy’s stake in oil blocks offshore Ghana that contain large oil discoveries … The deal marks the first entry by one of the world’s major oil companies into what is proving to be a significant new oil province and may pave the way for further acquisitions.

Top: Kosmos’ discovery of the Jubilee Field will enable the Republic of Ghana to join the ranks of significant West African oil exporters. Bottom: Kosmos’ deepwater Jubilee Field development scheme offshore Ghana includes the design and installation of sophisticated subsea architecture connected to a floating production, storage and offloading vessel (FPSO).

Top: Kosmos’ discovery of the Jubilee Field will enable the Republic of Ghana to join the ranks of significant West African oil exporters. Bottom: Kosmos’ deepwater Jubilee Field development scheme offshore Ghana includes the design and installation of sophisticated subsea architecture connected to a floating production, storage and offloading vessel (FPSO).

Analysts at Morgan Stanley put a value of $3.3 billion to $5 billion on Kosmos’ stake in the blocks.

ExxonMobil declined to comment. Kosmos was not immediately available to comment.

The Kosmos blocks contain the Jubilee field, which is operated by Tullow and is estimated to hold between 1.2 billion and 1.8 billion barrels of oil equivalent. A separate discovery offshore Sierra Leone last month by Anadarko, at the western extreme of the same geological formation that contains Jubilee, signaled the potential for further multi-billion barrel discoveries stretching eastward for 1,100 kilometers through the waters of the Ivory Coast and Liberia.

“The Ghanaians should be very pleased. They’ve got an embryonic oil industry,” and now they have the involvement of one of the largest, most experienced and technically qualified oil companies …

A large number of major international and state-owned oil and gas companies were among potential buyers of this strategic asset. These companies have been informed by letter that Kosmos has entered into an exclusive arrangement with ExxonMobil, the person said.

Kosmos holds 30.875% of the West Cape Three Points Block and 18% of the Deepwater Tano block. Its partners are Tullow Oil PLC (TLW.LN) and Anadarko Petroleum Corp. (APC).

Jubilee field straddles both blocks and Tweneboa discovery in Deepwater Tano is thought to be another large oil reservoir.

Here is a map, with a bit more info from Kosmos Energy.

Kosmos map, oil blocks off the coast of Ghana

Kosmos map, oil blocks off the coast of Ghana, click to enlarge

Today, Oct. 7, Reuters updates:

ACCRA, Oct 7 (Reuters) – State-run Ghana National Petroleum Corp (GNPC) is studying an agreement by Exxon Mobil (XOM.N) to buy Kosmos Energy’s stake in the Jubilee oil field in Ghana before passing it to the energy ministry for its blessing, a Ghanaian government source said on Wednesday.

“GNPC is required to look at the entire deal as negotiated,” said the government source involved in the energy sector.

“The idea is to ensure that it is the best offer not only in monetary terms but also it should come with the technical expertise,” the source told Reuters.

The Jubilee field is one of the largest oil finds in West Africa in the past decade.

Sources close to the matter said on Tuesday Exxon had agreed to buy a stake which analysts have previously valued at up to $5 billion.

Under the Ghanaian vetting process for the deal, the energy ministry will pass it on to President John Atta Mills’ cabinet for approval, the government source said without giving a timeframe for a decision.

From the Dallas Morning News:

Exxon Mobil Corp. is in talks to buy a stake in a massive oil field off the coast of Ghana for around $4 billion from Dallas’ Kosmos Energy LLC, according to media reports and a person familiar with the deal.

Kosmos, a privately held oil and gas company that focuses on West Africa, sent a letter to other bidders terminating the process, according to a knowledgeable industry source, and entered exclusive talks with Irving oil giant Exxon. A sale would require approval from Ghana’s government, said two people familiar with the process.

Ghana is set to become West Africa’s newest oil exporter in late 2010, when output begins at the Jubilee field. The deal comes at a time when Exxon’s oil production has declined and the company has said it might fail to meet its 2009 target for 2 percent output growth.

Exxon, Kosmos and the private equity companies involved in the negotiations declined to comment publicly on the deal.

“Exxon Mobil routinely evaluates potential development opportunities around the world. We do not comment on the details of commercial discussions or opportunities,” Exxon spokesman Patrick McGinn said in an e-mail.

Kosmos is led by James Musselman, former chief executive at Triton Energy Ltd. Triton discovered oil off the coast of Equatorial Guinea and was sold to Hess Corp., then known as Amerada Hess Corp., in 2001.

Musselman and his partners started Kosmos in late 2003 after raising $800 million from private equity investors Blackstone and Warburg Pincus.

The Jubilee sale marks the company’s first asset sale. Rather than producing oil, Kosmos’ business model is finding oil fields and selling them.

The Wall Street Journal reports:

Blackstone Group LP (BX) and Warburg Pincus LLC’s stake in Kosmos Energy has turned out to be black gold, indeed.

The agreed-to sale of the company’s stake in several oil discoveries off the coast of Ghana to Exxon Mobil Corp. (XOM) for $4 billion represents a cash on cash return of approximately four times for the two buyout firms over a period of five years or so.

Blackstone declined to comment on the deal’s internal rate of return; Warburg Pincus could not be reached for comment. The two firms own most of the company, with Warburg Pincus holding the larger share, at 55%. Management also owns a small stake.

The two initially invested $300 million in the business in 2004 to help it explore for oil and gas in West Africa. Upon the 2008 discovery of the Jubilee field, one of the larger recent finds off the West African coast, they put in an additional $500 million.

It was a big bet in a geographic region that other oil companies had scoured for years with little luck. But Warburg Pincus and Blackstone were willing to place their faith in Kosmos Chief Executive Jim Musselman and his team, who had delivered a home run for private equity before. The Kosmos team had previously led Triton Energy Ltd., a company backed by Hicks Muse Tate & Furst Inc. that was sold to Amerada Hess Corp. in 2001. Hicks made back $1 billion on that $350 million 1998 investment.

It is fairly common for private equity firms to provide capital to experienced management teams in the oil and gas industry, allowing them to develop resources to the point where the company can go public or draw the interest of a larger strategic player. That model is now being seen increasingly in emerging markets as well as private equity firms expand their global reach.

Another major player off the coast of West Africa, Cobalt International Energy Inc., filed for a $1.15 billion initial public offering last month. That company is backed by First Reserve Corp., Carlyle/Riverstone, Goldman Sachs Group Inc. and Kern Partners Ltd., and in April partnered up with French oil giant Total S.A. (TOT) to prospect for oil in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico’s deepwater.

First Reserve also recently set up a new venture in Southeast Asia, KrisEnergy Holdings Inc., to explore for oil and gas, committing $500 million to support it.

Older deals include a $35 million 2008 investment by Emerging Capital Partners in Ocean & Oil Investments Ltd., a Nigerian investment company; and a $380 million investment led by Pine Brook Road Partners LLC in 2007 in Asia Pacific Exploration Consolidated LP.

The sharks are out in full force. Ghana will need to swim like a dolphin. As most readers here already know, the problem with the oil resource curse is not just that it keeps people poor, it actively makes them poorer than if there was no oil.

You can see a range of Ghanaian reaction in the comments to the original article on GhanaWeb, here are some samples:

Idiots in Govt writes: Yes, let’s go for the big boys. They may not give you as much on the side but they will do a good job. Good Job Mills.

Sir Jay writes: with America company now on board, Ghanaians must tightened their belts and hope for the worst for Ghana. just look at the Ogoniland and its people and it will not be hard to see what Exxonmobil is capable of doing.
Now the future is bleak.
I am scared !!!!!!!!!

American boy writes: ExxonMobile is quite possibly the worst company you’d want coming into your country.
I guarantee you this will happen. There will be a few, maybe 100 corrupt Ghanaians who will get rich from the oil.
Everyone else will not even know oil was discovered anywhere and will continue to be poor.

Unfinished Vision writes: Let the rip off begin — I mean resume.

Diamond replies to Unfinished Vision: Strong message with a humorous twist.
Beautiful.
All we have to do is to tell them what we want. If they do not like it, we can seek other partners.
Nobody is totally safe, but maybe the Chinese? Russians?
Boy, I pain for Ghana.
Is there hope in any direction?
The Saudis, the Emirates, the Kuwaitis?
Can anyboby give us an honest deal?
Can any of our politicians work for us?
Mabey & Johnson (Ghana), Scancem (Ghana), British Aerospace (Tanzania), Haliburton (Nigeria).
Oh, Afrika.

Annex writes: These guys are such bad news. They are so tied to the U.S imperialism, I feel so sad for Ghana. They will influence our politics and corrupt are leaders. NDC are proving to be worse capitalists than NPP. It may true Obama showed up because of oil.

DRAGON alexandria.VA writes: they are the cause of nigerias oil calamity.environmental degradation,pollution,corruption etc..mills be careful with this company

Nana Kwame writes: Exxon/Mobil is a unscrupulous oil predator. Ghana should not rejoice because of their interest.
It is about time GNPC raises enough funds from China, remember China has a $1.95 trillion foreign reserves to lend, so that we buy this Exxon/Mobil interests out of the venture.
Exxon/Mobil is just a gigantic oil predator and parasitic company. It simply has not got the development interests of developing countries at heart.

emmanuel writes: Why should this be any surprise? The purpose of ANY corporation is to make money for the stockholders. If you don’t like that then try communism and see where that gets you.
If Exxon had priorities other than making money for the shareholders then it would have gone bankrupt a long time ago. It is a damn successful and well-run company–in fact it is the biggest corporation in the world.
Should corporations have limits placed on how they do business to protect citizens and employees from abuse? Absolutely. Just make sure that Exxon does things in manner prescribed by law (and if they are allowed to get away with such things in Ghana then whose fault is it, really?

Kaakyie_Nua writes: This is the same Exxon/Mobil which packed up, sold its assets to Total and left town rather unceremonously. The question our politicians should be asking is this: Why do they want back in?
U see they got the daylight kicked out of them by Hugo Chavez and so they want to weasel their way back into Ghana and take advantage of us again.
While Ghana is open and receptive to mutually beneficial foreign investments, Prof. Mills and his team should make it abundantly clear to all commers including Exxon/Mobil that the “rules of the game” have changed and that the benefits of the oil find should should be enjoyed, first and foremost, by Ghanaians particularly the local inhabitants. For this to happen they should take steps to prevent excessive “Flipping” that is commonplace in the oil industry.
If Exxon/Mobil has come back to stay, then they are welcomed to help us develop our oil industry. If this is not the case, then they will be better off somewhere else. Perhaps in Alaska their own backyard.

Lin writes: I am an American and know how American corporatons operate. Ghana
is in the driver’s seat now. But if it isn’t careful it will be riding in the back seat and the driver won’t be a chauffeur. Before the game begins be sure they ante up and above all cut the cards. Also stop the ngame from time to time and get a new deck.

Ogyam writes: what is all these? can someone explain? just confused. SIMPLE!!

Kaakyie_Nua writes: Have done their bit and the “big players” the likes of Exxon/Mobil etc have come in to take over.
They have paid Tullow a decent price plus handsome profit for the leg work they have done.
The trouble for Ghana is that the value of this find on paper has shot up substantially when nothing has changed in terms of the physical assets on the ground.
Look, I am sure made all kinds of promises to the local residents and the govt and we live to see if Exxon/Mobil will honour all of them.
Look at it this way: Instead of the corner mechanic servicing ur automobile, u have a delearship taking care of it. Do u think ur maintenance costs are going to be lower? Remmember the R&D operations take place in the home country and the local operations have no say how much they have to pay headquarters in the States.
True a similar thing would have transpired under Tullow but to a much lesser degree. U see size matters a lot in business dealings.

JO ZONGO writes: I think that´s good news as well. Most experienced and qualified companies can help our stuation more in. But where from this infomation? GHANAIAN NEWS or GHANA NEWS?

Nana Kwame asks: When was the last time the CEOs of the major oil companies helped you?

Pastor Ernest Opoku Agyeman writes: I think in dealing with the contract of the oil, political divisions should be set aside. The focus should be Ghana and the people of Ghana. Secondly, the managers representing Ghana should be careful in dealing with every aspect of the wording of the contract and consider inflation in the next 50 to 100 years. We should not forgotten the timber, gold, diamonds, bauxite contracts that did not help Ghana due to the fact that our people did not think about the future before undertaking that contract. All the politicians must come together and think through what the benefits or development shall we need from these companies. Next…

Big Talk writes: 10 %.Can you beleive this? And they have started taking loans even before their ……%.

No Wonder writes: It looks good yet it’s a death warrent to many folks to come. This is a company whose dealings has cost so many human lives and burn the earth around the globe including their own home country, talk to the Alaskan, south Americans – Amazon forest etc. Now they are coming to Ghana and will support both political parties like they do in their own homeland but in our case they will do what they do best take the oil out send the funds back in arms – weapons so we could distroy ourselves. Look at Nigeria etc. so before we go out singing and dancing please listen to the tune and watch the drummers carefully before they change the beat on you.

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Huge deposits of oil have been identified in Uganda along the shore of Lake Albert:
Uganda’s oil reserves rival Saudi Arabia’s, says US expert

map of Uganda showing the Bunyoro kingdom in green

map of Uganda showing the Bunyoro kingdom in green, located along the side of Lake Albert, where much of the oil is located

Uganda along lake Albert.  The white line in the lake is the border between Uganda and DRC.  On the Unganda side you can see the places Tonyo, Hoima, and Butiaba marked on the map.  These are of particular interest to the oil business.

Uganda along lake Albert, the white line in the lake is the border between Uganda and DRC. On the Uganda side you can see the places Tonyo, Hoima, and Butiaba marked on the map. These are locations of oil discoveries.

The southern portion of Lake Albert in Uganda including most of oil Block 3A (map added 4/2010)

These are the oil blocks around Lake Albert, with Uganda on the east/right, and the DRC on the west/left.

These are the oil blocks around Lake Albert, with Uganda on the east/right, and the DRC on the west/left

KAMPALA, UGANDA – Uganda’s oil reserves could be as much as that of the Gulf countries, a senior official at the US Department of Energy has said.

Based on the test flow results encountered at the wells so far drilled and other oil numbers, Ms. Sally Kornfeld, a senior analyst in the office of fossil energy went ahead to talk about Uganda’s oil reservoirs in the same sentence as Saudi Arabia.”You are blessed with amazing reservoirs. Your reservoirs are incredible. I am amazed by what I have seen, you might rival Saudi Arabia,” Kornfeld told a visiting delegation from Uganda in Washington DC.

The group of Ugandans was in Washington on an international visitor programme and looked at the efficient use of natural energy resources.

The group comprised Ministry of Energy officials, a Member of Parliament, members from the civil society and one journalist.

At present, Uganda has four oil prospectors on the ground including Heritage Oil, Tullow Oil, Tower Oil and Dominion Oil.

Of the four prospectors, Tullow and Heritage have registered success at wells in two blocks in the Albertine basin, which lies in the upper-most part of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley.

According to data so far aggregated since the first discovery was made by Australian prospector Hardman Resources (now taken over by Tullow) in June 2006, Uganda has established reserves at 3.5 million barrels of oil per day.

Experts in oil exploration say this could be just a tip of the iceberg.

In April last year, Tullow embarked on what it termed as a major drilling campaign in the Butiaba area around Lake Albert targeting an overall reserve potential in excess of a billion barrels.

The Butiaba campaign was preceded by successes in two drilling campaigns in the Kaiso-Tonya area and the Kingfisher field and all these have been 100% successes so far.

The Butiaba campaign has thrown up successes but the two biggest so far have been the Buffalo-Giraffe wells – described as “one of the largest recent onshore oil discoveries in Africa“.

“Combined with our other finds in the region, we have now clearly exceeded the thresholds for basin development,” the chief executive of Tullow commented then.

The Giraffe-1 exploration well, which is located in the Butiaba region, came up with over 38 metres of net oil pay within an 89-metre gross oil bearing interval.

The data from the Giraffe discovery indicate a net reservoir thickness of 38 metres, the largest encountered in the area to date.

The Buffalo-1 exploration well in Block 1 encountered 15 metres of net gas pay and over 28 metres of net oil pay.

The gas and oil columns encountered are 48 metres and 75 metres respectively with the potential to be even larger.

As Kornfeld marveled at Uganda’s oil finds, she was quick to add that for the country to benefit from the oil and gas resources but also avoid the pitfalls of oil producing countries like Nigeria, it is extremely important to set up strong governance structures.

Kornfeld and the other United States officials said they are ready to help Uganda’s nascent oil and gas sector with anything including the key environmental issues that are crucial to the efficient management of oil and gas.

Anything you might want us to help you with we will and we have a lot of expertise in environmental issues relating to oil and gas,” Kornfeld said.

And in a quote from the article written a year ago, with the oil blocks pictured above:

“The Albert Basin now looks increasingly like it has the elements to make it a world-class petroleum basin. The flow rates, even constrained by available completion and test facilities, far exceeded our expectations,” Tony Buckingham says.

It is certainly true the the US has a lot of experience, and one might say expertise, in environmental issues relating to oil and gas. Unfortunately much of that expertise and experience is involved in circumventing and evading environmental law and responsible environmental management.

Then, as Ms. Kornfeld said, there is the issue of avoiding the pitfalls of other oil producing countries like Nigeria. In general, the US has supported the policies and governments in Nigeria that have engineered these pitfalls, into seemingly bottomless pits, working along with the US based oil corporations operating in Nigeria. So although they might know what to avoid in order to be socially and environmentally responsible, there is no indication that the US government or the oil corporations have any intention of acting in socially or environmentally responsible ways. Uganda does not have much history of environmentalism it can point to with pride either. So far the US response to African oil issues has been almost entirely military, hence AFRICOM, the US Africa Command.

The Uganda government may be strong in the sense of using muscle to insure compliance. It employs muscle internally against dissent, and externally to assist in exploiting the resources of its neighbors, particularly in the DRC. However its democratic history is weak, and employment of any form of participatory democracy in decision making is sadly lacking. The US has been an enthusiastic supporter of Uganda’s “strength”. Mahmood Mamdani points out that Museveni has been a US proxy in Rwanda, and is still a US proxy in the DRC. AMISOM soldiers from Uganda are in Somalia acting as US proxies, and the underlying issue there too is oil.

Musevenis name means son of a man of the seventh, meaning from the Seventh Battalion of the Kings Africa Rifles. That seems ironically appropriate, as Uganda is acting as a US proxy in the DRC, Somalia, and Ugandan mercenaries have played a prominent role in Iraq. US proxy warriors in Africa have been referred to as Bush’s Africa Rifles, now Obama’s Africa Rifles, not too different from the colonial proxy war tradition of the King’s Africa Rifles.

Museveni has shown no interest in allowing any democratic opposition to his presidency. In May he declared: I see no successor in NRM.

He may have ruled Uganda for the past twenty three years but President Yoweri Museveni is still hesitant to hand over power, not even to members of the National Resistance Movement, of which he is the leader.

On Thursday the president told NRM Members of Parliament that while he would be “happy” to hand over power, he saw “nobody” ready to take on the daunting responsibility of leading Uganda.

So the Uganda government will continue to run along lines that Museveni sees as in his/Uganda’s interest. I don’t know if this is the “strong governance structures” to which Kornfeld refers. It may well be. She and her cronies may see this as the most convenient way for the US to access Ugandan oil. But it cannot be described as democratic, or in any way resembling participatory democracy. Unless people who live where the resources are can benefit from those resources, and have some say in how they are disposed, there will be conflict. And problems are already brewing. In April 2009 Uganda Bunyoro Kingdom Threatens Lawsuit over Oil Exploration:

Cultural leaders of Uganda’s Bunyoro kingdom, located on the Ugandan side of the oil-rich Albertine rift, have threatened legal action against the central government over oil exploration and production activities there, a kingdom official said Monday, but the government has promised talks to resolve the issue.

Yolamu Nsamba, the principal private secretary of the king of Bunyoro, said the government has breached the pre-independence agreement of 1955, which provides that Bunyoro is entitled to substantial amounts of revenue from mineral exploration in its kingdom.

“For years now, the central government has been dealing with oil exploration companies secretly yet the law has never been changed,” he said, adding that kingdom officials have already informed the central government of its intentions.

A government official told Dow Jones Newswires separately Monday that the central government would soon start talks with kingdom officials to resolve the issue. Uganda is expected to embark on an early oil production scheme in the first quarter of 2010.

The 1955 agreement was signed between the Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom and the U.K. protectorate government and stipulates that in the event of mineral development taking place in Bunyoro, a substantial part of the mineral royalties and revenue from mining leases would be paid to the native government of Bunyoro Kitara.

Bunyoro remains influential in Uganda although its cultural leaders are prohibited from engaging in national politics.

It will be interesting to see how Bunyoro fares in maintaining some control over its riches. And there are troubles with the neighbors too. In May 2009 Uganda beefs up marine surveillance on its waters.

Uganda has stepped up security on its waterways and is quietly revamping its marine police in anticipation of tensions with its neighbours over the country’s natural resources.

Apparently, the discovery of high-value natural resources such as oil and gas under and near Uganda’s lakes and the need to protect fisheries resources are the imperative behind moves to improve security on the country’s waters.

The Police Marine Unit has acquired four specialised boats at a cost of $8.6 million to be paid over a period of five years.

The acquisitions and keen interest in marine security come in the wake of an incident in August 2007, when Congolese troops on the disputed Rukwanzi island in Lake Albert shot and killed oil prospectors who were carrying out surveys on the Ugandan side of the lake.

Officials say terror threats have also underscored the need for improving security on the country’s lakes because Uganda’s main Entebbe airport — the kind of key infrastructure usually targeted by terrorists — is located on a peninsula in Lake Victoria.

Much as the boats are up and running and have recently been seen around Migingo island, over which Kenya and Uganda are squabbling, questions are being raised over the capacity of the police to take on and maintain such infrastructure both financially and technically.

Uganda is landlocked, so issues of how and where the oil will be refined and transported are still up in the air. Tullow, Heritage Face Tough Choices on Uganda Oil Devt.

After remarkable exploration success in Uganda, Tullow Oil PLC (TLW.LN) and Heritage Oil Ltd. (HOIL.LN) face tough choices over how to develop the oil they’ve discovered.

Both companies face immense infrastructure challenges bringing the oil from its remote region to world markets. They have to walk a fine line between their commercial goals and the sometimes conflicting ambitions of the Ugandan government. Tullow and Heritage also have to handle overtures from much larger rivals that want in on the substantial quantities of oil they have discovered.

“Lake Albert is a multibillion-barrel basin,” with great potential to expand reserves even further once problems with licenses on the Congolese side of the lake are resolved and exploration begins there, said Paul Atherton, chief financial officer of Heritage.

Tullow and Heritage have long talked of exporting the Lake Albert oil to world markets via Kenya, initially by rail to the port of Mombassa and eventually through a large enough pipeline to carry the 150,000 barrels of oil per day the basin is thought to be capable of producing.

The government has clashed recently with Tullow over the pipeline, said an official at the energy and minerals ministry.

And Uganda’s energy minister recently said no unrefined oil should be exported from Uganda and instead the country should build a refinery to process all domestic crude and supply oil products to the whole region.

As talks on the development move slowly forward, one voice that has been heard little so far is that of the local communities, said Dickens Kamugisha, chief executive of the African Institute for Energy Governance, a non-governmental organization based in the Ugandan capital.

Local people are worried about the problems caused in Nigeria, Angola and Chad by the exploitation of oil resources and unchecked flows of petrodollars to governments with a reputation for corruption, he said. “The process has been secretive,” with insufficient public discussion over the competing development plans and no publication of the production-sharing contracts between the Ugandan government and the companies, he said.

Tullow and Heritage stressed that they have maintained good relationships with local communities. Tullow said it has shown local people around their drill sites to explain what they are doing and both companies are contributing to local development by funding schools, health clinics and even lifeboat training on the lake. Employment of local people “would be an integral part of any development plan,” along the lines of work the company has done in Ghana, said McDade.

Kamugisha acknowledged the local work of the companies, but expressed concern about the lack of transparency from the government. He said he wants the Ugandan government to follow the principles of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and declare all oil revenues openly in order to prevent corruption. Both Tullow and Heritage said they are happy to disclose the terms of their contracts — which they described as containing good terms for Uganda — if the government allows it.

Whether this is enough is unclear. A dispute is already brewing over who controls rights to minerals in the Lake Albert area and how revenues will be distributed between the government and leaders of the Bunyoro Kingdom — the ethnic grouping that occupies districts on the lake’s eastern shore . Local communities “say they have been completely left out of the process and are not satisfied,” said Kamugisha.

It looks like some rough roads ahead.

__________

Note:
h/t to b real whose research identified many of the links above
Bunyoro map from Face Music – History of Uganda
Oil blocks pictured above blocks from this article .

__________

October 15 2011:

For more on this topic see:
If Uganda Has Oil It Must Need The Pentagon’s Democracy including the documents in the comments.

For more on the first attempt of the Pentagon to go after Kony and the LRA see:
Stability operations cause 900 civilian deaths, 100,000 displaced, miss target
and
Botched raid.